Costume, Textile, Design, & Manufacture

High-Fashion designers

Charles Frederick Worth ‘father of haute couture’– first designer to sew his label into the garments he created. Founded the House of Worth.

There then followed:

  • Callot Soeurs – The Callot sisters opened their fashion house at 24 rue Taitbout, Paris in 1895. They were Marie Callot Gerber, Marthe Callot Bertrand, Regina Callot Tennyson-Chantrell and Joséphine Callot Crimont. Amongst the first designers to use gold and silver lame to create exotic dresses. The firm was taken over by Marie Callot Gerber’s son Pierre Gerber in 1928 and in 1937 it was absorbed into the House of Calvet (Marie-Louise Calvet) but retained its own label. Closed in 1948.
  • Jean Patou (1880-1936), House of Patou. Invented the designer tie, knitted swimwear, tennis skirt and sun lotion. His designs ended the flapper era.
  • Paul Poiret (1879-1944). Founded Parfums de Rosine and Ecole Martine. His designs freed women from the corset. Famous for draping as the central theme of his dressmaking. Designed luxurious oriental and Art Deco gowns. Invented the suspender belt, flesh-coloured stockings, culottes and the modern bra. His label had on it a rose and “Paul Poiret a Paris”.
  • Vionnet.  Madeleine Vionnet (1876-1975) “Queen of the bias cut” and “the architect among dressmakers”. Famous for her Grecian-style dresses and introducing the bias cut. Trained at Callot Soeurs and Jacques Doucet. The House of Vionnet closed in 1939 on the outbreak of war. The fashion house was revived in 1988 by the Lummen family.
  • Fortuny. Mariano Fortuny (1871-1949). Spanish fashion designer who opened a couture house in Paris in 1906 which ran until 1946.He invented his own method of dying and printing fabrics. Famous for the Greek-style Delpho Gown and Knossos Scarf as well as his brightly coloured pleated gowns.
  • Lanvin. Jeanne Lanvin (1867-1946) Became a member of the Syndicate de la Couture in 1909, running a boutique on the rue de Fanbourg Saint-Honoré, Paris. Famous for her mother-and-daughter outfits and robe de style (1920s style with a dropped waistline and full skirt often with leopard or cheetah print). Lanvin is the oldest fashion house still in business.
  • Chanel S.A. – Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel (1883-1971)  started her business at 31 Rue de Cambon, Paris. Famous for the Chanel No. 5 perfume and the ‘Little Black Dress’
  • Mainbocher. Main Rousseau Bocher (1891-1976). American couturier, inventor of the strapless evening dress.  Opened his Paris couturiers in 1929 and one in New York in 1939. Designed war uniforms for WAVES (navy) and SPARS (coastguard) and Girl Guides. Designed the wedding Dress for the Duchess of Windsor. Also shoes and handbags
  • Schiaparelli, Elsa Schiaparelli (1890-1973), Italian fashion designer linked to the Surrealist movement and worked with Salvador Dali. The business closed in 1954.
  • Balenciaga. Cristóbal Balenciaga (1914-1972) Spanish fashion designer, founder of the house of Balenciaga. Opened his couture house on Avenue George V, Paris in 1937. Designed the “square coat” and is famous for the use of black lace over bright pink fabric. Cristóbal Balenciaga left the fashion house in 1968. In 1995 Nicolas Ghesquière joined the house and became creative director in 1997. In 2001 it was acquired by the Gucci Group. Also bags.
  • Dior, Christian Dior SA. Christian Dior (1905-1957) French fashion designer and inventor of the New Look (or Corolle or petal in French) dresses with below mid-calf length full skirts, large bust and small waist. Dior’s assistant was Yves Saint Laurent (1936-2008) who took over the Fashion house after Dior’s death until 1960. Also bags and shoes,

1960s

In the 1960s there were a new generation of designers:

  • Yves Saint Laurent. Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent (1936-2008), French fashion designer. Yves Saint Laurent and Pierre Bergé founded the fashion house of Yves Saint Laurent in 1962. He made elements of male dress popular for women, such as the blazer, trouser suit and leather jacket. Yves Saint Laurent was the first designer to use black models. The chief designer is now Stefano Pilati. In 1999 Gucci group bought the brand and in 2002 the Yves Saint Laurent closed the couture house in 2002 although the brand name still continues.
  • Pierre Cardin (1922-), Italian born French Fashion designer. Famous for space age designs, geometric shapes and unisex fashion. Invented the “bubble dress” in 1954
  • André Courrèges, French fashion designer (1923- ) – Famous for his ultra-modern designs and known as the “lord of the miniskirt” Both Courrèges and Mary Quant claim to have invented the miniskirt. He used white fabric, squares, trapezoids and triangles in his designs. Used spaceman-like helmets and shiny white shin-length PVC boots as part of his 1964 Moon Girl Collection, this range also popularised the trouser suit. In 1969 introduced the ‘gladiator girl’ style.
  • Emanuel Ungaro, French fashion designer (1933-).  Opened his fashion house in 1965 at 2 Avenue Montaigne, Paris, after working for both Balenciaga and Courrèges.
  • Other late 20th century designers include:
  • Hanae Mori, Japanese fashion designer, in 1977 became the first Asian woman to be admitted as an official haute couture design house. Draws on the butterfly for inspiration.
  • Lacroix Christian Marie Marc Lacroix (1951-) French fashion designer. Opened his own fashion house in 1987. Famous for short puff-ball skirts, hot Mediterranean colours and low necklines.
  • Jean-Paul Gaultier (1952-) French fashion designer. Released his first individual collection in 1976. Has designed clothes for films and musicians such as Madonna, Marilyn Manson and Kylie Minogue. Famous for his chiffon gowns, trench coats and trouser suits.
  • Thierry Mugler (1948-) French fashion designer. Strong angular design with influences from the world of insects. The brand is now best known for perfume.
  • Chamber Syndicale de la Haute CoutureMembers
  • Adeline André
  • Anne Valérie Hash
  • Chanel
  • Christian Dior
  • Christian Lacroix
  • Dominique Sirop
  • Emanuel Ungaro
  • Franck Sorbier
  • Givenchy. Hubert de Givenchy (1952-1995). French fashion designer famous for his modern, lady-like styles. Audrey Hepburn wore some of his designs in her films.  The Givenchy brand is know for its clothing accessories, perfumes and cosmetics.
  • Jean Paul Gaultier
  • Maurizio Galante
  • Correspondent members (foreign)
  • Elie Saab
  • Giorgio Armani
  • Maison Martin Margiela
  • Valentino SpA
  • Guest Members
  • Adam Jones
  • Alexis Mabille
  • Boudicca
  • Cathy Pill
  • Christophe Josse
  • Felipe Oliveria Baptista
  • Gustavo LinsJean-Paul Knott
  • Josep Font
  • Lefranc Ferrant
  • Marc Le Bihan
  • Richard René
  • Stéphane Rolland
  • Udo Edling
  • Wu Yong
  • Eymeric François
  • Gérald Watelet
  • Nicolas Le Cauchois
  • On aura tout vu
  • Former members
  • Atelier Versace
  • Elsa Schiaparelli
  • Emilio Pucci (1914-1992) – Italian fashion designer. “the prince of prints” known for his use of abstract design and bright colours.
  • Erica Spitulski
  • Erik Tenorio
  • Fred Setal
  • Guy Laroche
  • Hanae Mori
  • Jean Patou
  • Jean-Luis Scherrer
  • Lanvin
  • Loris Azzaro
  • Louis Feraud
  • Mainboucher
  • Marcel Rochas
  • Nina Ricci
  • Paco Rabanne (1934-) Spanish born French fashion designer. Started his career creating jewellery for Givenchy, Dior and Balenciaga. Opened his own fashion house in 1966. Designed costumes for the film Barbarella. Known for his use of metal, paper and plastic.
  • Pierre Balmain
  • Pierre Cardin
  • Ralph Rucci
  • Torrent
  • Yves Saint Laurent
  • Fashion designers working in High street fashion
  • Calvin Klein (1942-) American fashion designer. Famous for jeans, boxer shorts and perfume. Clothing is now under the brand name Calvin Klein Collection.
  • Ralph Lauren (1939- ), American fashion designer
  • Sean John – Clothing and fragrance line created American hip-hop artist Sean John Combs (Puff Daddy, P. Diddy or Diddy)
  • Kate Moss (model) designs for Top Shop
  • Dawn French – designs for Evans
  • Kelly Brook – designed a range of lingerie for New Look 2007

Other celebrity designers

  • Jordan
  • Coleen Nolan

Other fashion designers

  • Mary Quant (1934) – British fashion designer credited with the invention of the mini-skirt in 1965 (this claim is also made for André Courrèges who indeed designed the first mini-skirt in 1964 but Mary Quant shortened it and made it fashionable) and hot pants. She pioneered a mix and match approach to fashion that became known as the ‘Chelsea look’.
  • Gianni Versace – Italian clothier founded by Gianni Versace in 1978. Following Gianni Versace’s murder in 1997 his sister Donatella Versace became creative director and his older brother Santo Versace became CEO.
  • Vivienne Westwood (1941-) – British fashion designer. Designed clothes for the band The Sex Pistols and was instrumental in developing the Punk movement.
  • Zandra Rhodes (1940-) – British Fashion designer. Started her own shop in the Fulham Road, London in 1969 and became part of the new wave of British fashion designers that put London at the front of the international fashion scene in the 1970s. Noted for her use of beading, exterior seams and slashed silk tatters.
  • Digby Morton (1906-1983) – British Fashion designer. Provided leadership in the British fashion industry during the war years. Famous for his tailored tweed suits.
  • Gucci – The House of Gucci was founded by Guccio Gucci (1881-1853) in Florence in 1921 and is famous for it fashion and leather goods.
  • Jasper Conran (currently working for Debenhams)
  • Stella McCartney – (1971-) English fashion designer and daughter of former Beatle Paul McCartney. Attended Bexhill College.
  • Karl Lagerfield (used to design for Chloe then Stella McCartney took over)
  • Vera Wang (bridal)
  • John Rocha
  • Rouland Mouret (has a range at Gap)
  • Prada – Italian fashion house specialising in ready to wear clothes, leather accessories, shoes and luggage. Opened in Milan in 1913.
  • Dolce and Gabbana – Italian fashion house founded in 1985.
  • Louis Vuitton – French fashion house founded in 1854
  • John Galliano (1960- ) –  Born in Gibraltar but moved to London at as a child. Attended Central St Martins College of Art and Design. His first collection Les Incroyables was inspired by the French Revolution and was sold by the London fashion boutique Browns. British Designer of the Year 1987, 1994 and 1995, and shared the award with Alexander McQueen in 1997. From 1991 began designing clothes for Kylie Minogue. Appointed as designer for Givenchy in 1995, moved to Christian Dior in 1996.
  • Julien MacDonald – (1971-) Welsh fashion designer. Worked for Karl Lagerfeld at Chanel and succeeded Alexander McQueen as head designer at Givenchy in 2000. British Fashion Designer of the Year 2001. Famous for his knitwear and controversial for his use of fur.
  • Alexander McQueen (1969- ) – English fashion designer. At the age of 16 he was apprenticed to the Savile Row tailor Anderson & Sheppard and then worked for Gieves & Hawkes and Angels & Bermans. Worked in Milan for Romeo Gigli, returning to London in 1994 to study at Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design. Invented the low cut “bumsters” trousers. Known as “the hooligan of English Fashion. Became head designer at Givenchy 1996, succeeding John Galliano, he left in 2001. In 2000 worked with Gucci and in 2005 Puma.
  • High Street Designer Brands
  • DKNY
  • Warehouse
  •  Kooki
  • Gap
  • Primark
  • Dorothy Perkins
  • Next
  • Topshop
  • Topman
  • H&M
  • Marks and Spencer
  • FCUK
  • Shoe Designers
  • Manolo
  • Gina
  • Chritian Louboutin
  • Walter Steiger
  • Jimmy Choo
  • Alexander McQueen
  • Prada
  • Sandra Choi
  • Vivienne Westwood
  • Louis Vuitton
  • Dolce and Gabbana
  • Spirella – Company famous for its made to measure corsets. These were not sold in shops, corsetiers would visit the customer at home. The most popular corset was the Model 305. Mr Beaman invented the flexible stay in 1904, with William Wallace Kincaid and Mr Pardee they created the Spirella Corset Company in America in 1904.
  • Bogner- Wilhelm (Willy) Bognor (1909-1977) Olympic skier and invented the stretch ski pants in 1952.  Developed his own ski fashion collection as was succeeded by his son Willy Bognor Jr. (1942-)
  • Crocs Inc. – shoe manufacturer founded in 2002. Famous for its plastic clog
  • Adidas – sportswear manufacturer
  • Speedo – swimwear designer and manufacturer founded as ‘Fortitude’ by Alexander MacRae in Australia in 1914, developed he Racerback in 1928 and the Speedo in 1919
  • American Apparel – USA’s largest clothing manufacturer founded in 1997
  • Driza-Bone – Australian manufacturer of riding coats founded 1898
  • J. Barbour & Sons Ltd – British manufacturer of waxed jackets, founded 1894
  • Burberry – British fashion company founded in 1856 and famous for its black, white and red pattern known as the haymarket check, which was used on the lining of coats but later used on accessories

Dress & Fashion Styles

1950

 

  • 1951 Balenciaga changed the female silhouette by broadening shoulders and removing waist
  • 1955 Balenciaga designed the tunic dress
  • 1957 Balenciaga designed the chemise dress
  • 1959 Balenciaga re-created the Empire line
  • New Look by Coco Chanel
  • Rockers
  • Mods
  • Greasers
  • Teddy Boys

1960s

  • The Beatles
  • Mini-skirt (Mary Quant)
  • Bell-bottom jean
  • Tie-dye
  • Batik fabrics
  • Paisley prints
  • Hippies
  • Skinny jeans
  • Pillbox hat
  • Beehive hairdo
  • Use of polyester and PVC
  • Men’s hats go out of style

1970s

  • Peasant look – Yves Saint Laurent 1976
  • Hippies
  • Jeans – hip huggers and bell bottoms
  • Custom T-shirts
  • Tie dye
  • Mini-skirt
  • Garish glittery make-up
  • Platform shoes
  • Disco style – three piece suit
  • Punk

1980s

  • New Romantic
  • Valley Girl
  • Power Dressing
  • Dancewear
  • The Miami Vice look
  • The Thriller
  • Madonna
  • Rap Music and Designer Sneakers
  • Hair Metal
  • Preppy

1990s

  • Body piercing
  • Spice Girls
  • 70s revival
  • Punk/Goth
  • Dockers and Cargo pants
  • Glitter make-up

Other Styles

  • Empire line – high waisted dress  gathered under the bust. Based on Ancient Greek dresses, popular in Regency Period and again in the late 1950s.
  • A-Line – fashion introduced by Christian Dior in his Spring-Summer Collection for 1955. The silhouette resembles the letter A with a narrow fit at the neck and shoulders and flaring from the hips down. Dior also introduced H-line and Y-line styles.
  • H-Line – Introduced by Dior in 1954 it was a slender tunic with a slim skirt
  • Y- Line – Introduced by Dior in 1955 featured a large V neck and immense stole
  • Fetish clothing
  • Gothic fashion
  • Heavy metal fashion
  • Hip hop fashion
  • Punk fashion
  • American Trad
  • Androgyny
  • Bohemian style
  • Boho-chic
  • Boyfriend
  • Business casual
  • Casual
  • Chav
  • Chic
  • Clubwear
  • Empire silhouette
  • Flapper
  • Flogger
  • Gamine
  • Geek Chic
  • Gouster
  • Heroin chic
  • Hipster
  • Ivy League
  • Lolita fashion
  • Nazi chic
  • Pokemón
  • Porno chic
  • Preppy
  • Shabby chic
  • Size zero
  • Sloane Ranger
  • Style tribe
  • Swenka
  • Thrift store chic
  • Waif
  • Wilderness chic
  • Young fogey

Dress Glossary

  • À la mode – in the style, fashionable
  • A-line – dress silhouette which flares from waist or bust
  • Aloha shirt (Hawaiian shirt) – developed in the 1930s by Ellery Chun in Waikiki, Hawaii. Printed short sleeve shirt with colourful Polynesian designs. Shirts worn by Hawaiian residents tend to have more traditional designs and have more muted colours that those exported or sold to tourists
  • Abayah – long loose robe in Arabic countries
  • Abolla – short military cloak, Ancient Roman
  • Afghan coat – sheepskin coat worn by hippies in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Aglet – metal tag attached to a ribbon, replaced by the button in mid 17th century, also the thing on the end of your shoelace!
  • Aigrette – feather plume on hat or hair
  • Aketon – padded armour of linen or wool, stuffed with cloth or horsehair. Also known as a gambeson or padded jack. Sometimes worn under metal armour
  • Alb – long white tunic, Ancient Roman but retained as a liturgical garb
  • Albanian hat – high crowned hat with raised front and a feather, French 16th century
  • Alice band – horseshoe shaped headband
  • Alicula – heavy cloak with a hood, Ancient Roman
  • Amadis sleeve – long sleeve that covers the back of the hand
  • Amice – white linen liturgical hood
  • Angusticlavia – Roman tunic embroidered with small purple studs
  • Ankle-strap shoe – similar to a slingback shoe but with the addition of a strap in front of the ankle as well as behind
  • Anorak – Inuit water proof tunic with hood.  The European version is a hooded waterproof jacket with a drawstring at the waist and cuffs. Put on by pulling over the head as it lacks a front opening
  • Appliqué – surface decoration, usually stitching or glued motifs
  • Apron – fabric cover that protects the front of clothing may have an upper section called a bib. For heavy work a leather apron would be used for protection. A decorative lace version without a bib became popular as court dress in the 17th century.
  • Araneous – lacework with a spider web pattern
  • Argyle – diamond pattern on knitwear
  • Arming-doublet – padded jacket worn under armour with arming points to attach the plates and goussets, insert of chainmail, at the elbow and armpits.
  • Armseye – the armhole of a garment where the sleeve attaches
  • Atelier – designer’s workshop
  • Artois – French calf-length overcoat with several overlapping capes, 18th century but developed into the 19th century coachman’s box-coat
  • Ascot  – cravat with wide ends, mid 19th century
  • Asymmetrical skirt – skirt where the hem is not level, dropped on one side
  • Attifet – woman’s heart-shaped bonnet, 16th century
  • Bagnolette – short hooded cape, early 18th century
  • Bag-wig – wig tied at the back into a black silk bag, 18th century
  • Baguette – faceted oblong gemstone
  • Balaclava – (ski mask, monkey cap) – woollen cap that also covers the lower part of the face, named after the town of Balaklava in the Crimea during the Crimean War (1854-56). Modern balaclavas are made of a range of materials and are used for cold weather sports or by the military
  • Balagnie cloak – cape with a deep collar that could also be worn on one shoulder, 17th century
  • Baldrick – a sash or belt worn diagonally across the chest, usually to hold a sword or horn
  • Ballet Russe – Russian ballet which in 1909 introduced Parisian audiences to a new style of fashion with bright coloured, loose-fitting oriental styles.
  • Balmacaan – loose overcoat with flared sleeves, usually tweed
  • Balmoral – laced shoe or half boot, mid 19th century
  • Bandana (kerchief) – headscarf, often of brightly coloured or printed paisley pattern
  • Bandeau – strapless bodice of stretchy fabric, by the 1950s it revealed a bare midriff
  • Banditti – small spray of feathers on a woman’s bonnet, early 19th century
  • Bandore – black veil headdress, mourning wear 18th century
  • Banyan – loose fitting wrap of Indian silk, late 17th early 18th century
  • Barbette – woman’s headdress, originally a band of fabric to secure a hat or veil.  Worn with a coverchief to form a wimple
  • Barretino – long woollen or felt hat
  • Barrow coat – infant’s hooded sleeping bag
  • Basque (torsolette) – the continuation of an upper garment below the waist to form a short skirt. From the 20th century it usually refers to an article of lingerie, such as a camisole
  • Batwing sleeve (Dolman sleeve) – wide sleeve cut in one piece with the bodice with the armhole reaching from wrist to waist.
  • Bateau neck – straight, boat shaped neckline running from shoulder to shoulder
  • Batts – woman’s shoe of heavy black leather, medium heel, 17th century
  • Battledress – military uniform used for combat rather than parades
  • Bautta – black hooded cloak from Italy
  • Bavolet – woman’s bonnet with a skirt falling to the shoulders, 16th century
  • Beanie hat (woolly hat, bobble hat) – knitted wool or felt hat worn by school children in the 1920s to 1940s. A popular style being a skullcap made of coloured felt panels sewn together sometimes with a propeller on top. The modern beanie is a simple woolly hat.
  • Bedgown (bedjacket, shortgown) – printed cotton thigh length top, working class women’s wear from the 18th to early 19th century. Part of the Welsh national dress. Bedjackets usually refer to a top worn for sitting up in bed which were in use until the 1960s
  • Beret – cap made from a circle of fabric
  • Bertha collar – wide flat collar of lace
  • Betsie – multi-layered lace collar
  • Bias cut – fabric cut at a 45 degree angle to the grain giving elasticity and drape
  • Bibis – a small bonnet
  • Bicorne – two sided version of the tricorne hat
  • Bikini – two piece women’s swimsuit. Although there are examples in antiquity the invention of the modern bikini is credited to Louis Réard in 1946 and named after the nuclear test site Bikini Atoll
  • Biretta – square peaked hat worn by Roman Catholic clergy
  • Birrus – thick waterproof hooded cloak used from the Roman period through to the middle ages
  • Black-work – black embroidery on a white ground
  • Blanchet – cotton doublet with sleeves and collar
  • Bliaut or Bliaud – Women’s overgarment of the 12th century with voluminous skirt and horizontally pleating across the abdomen.  The sleeve fits closely from the shoulder to the elbow then flares out, extending almost to the ground. Usually worn with a belt.
  • Bobble hat – woollen hat with pom-pom on top
  • Bloomers – baggy trousers gathered at the ankles. Invented by Amelia Bloomer of New York in 1850.
  • Boardshorts (boardies, baggies) – baggy surfing shorts that reach down to the knees
  • Boater – round flat-topped brimmed hat of straw trimmed with a ribbon
  • Bodice – garment (or part of) covering the upper body
  • Bodysuit (body) – leotard top that does up at the crotch
  • Boemio – man’s cape, Spanish 16th century
  • Boilersuit (coverall) – one piece garment with sleeves and legs, originally worn by men maintaining steam engine boilers.
  • Bolero – short jacket with fitted sleeves from Spain. Usually worn unbuttoned at front
  • Bongrace – woman’s headdress with peaked front and free behind, 17th century
  • Bonnet – a hat that ties under the chin
  • Boot-cut (bootleg trousers) – trousers with a wide hem to fit over boots
  • Boot-hose – an overstocking worn with boots, by the 1630s they had become decorated with embroidery or lace. Worn by Cavaliers.
  • Bootlace tie (bolo tie, bola tie) – thin tie made of cord or braided leather with decorative aglets and an ornamental clasp or slide, worn by Teddy Boys in the 1950s or as part of Western wear in the USA
  • Bottine – elastic sided boots designed for Queen Victoria. Made from natural-coloured leather but with a black leather toe cap.
  • Bouclé – fabric with a looped or knotted surface
  • Boudoir cap – soft hat worn by ladies on undressed hair, late 18th and 19th century
  • Bourdalou – hat ribbon placed around the base of the crown of the hat
  • Bow-pleat shirt – woman’s blouse with pleated front and large hanging bow at neck
  • Bowler hat – round, domed, stiff hat with a curled brim. In use from about 1870 and after the First World War it came to replace the top hat as formal wear
  • Box pleat – two parallel creases turned into towards each other
  • Boxer shorts (boxers) – loose-fitting men’s underwear
  • Bra – see brassiere
  • Braccae – Latin for trousers, the Romans described the barbarians as wearing these. The word breeches derives from braccae.
  • Braces – straps used to hold up trousers, introduced in the mid 18th century they were made of cord but by 1840 elastic versions became available
  • Braies – men’s linen under-drawers, Medieval
  • Branc – woman’s smock, 15th century
  • Brandenburg – great coat of the period 1670-1710. Also refers to an ornamental fastening on outerwear
  • Brassard – black arm band worn to denote mourning
  • Brassiere (bra) – women’s undergarment that covers and supports the breasts
  • Breeches – term for trousers adopted during the 16th century and replacing nether –hosen or trunk-hose
  • Briefs (Y-fronts) – men’s tight-fitting underwear
  • Brigandine – armoured doublet of leather or canvas with steel studs usually worn by medieval men-at-arms
  • Brogue – leather shoe with hobnails, often decorated with punched leather
  • Brothel creeper (creepers) – low shoe with thick sponge rubber sole invented in 1949 by George Cox and associated with the Teddy Boy and rockabilly subcultures of the 1950s
  • Brunswick – gown used for travelling 1770s, consisting of a hip-length jacket with split sleeves (flounced elbow length sleeve and long tight false sleeve) and a hood with matching petticoat.
  • Bucksain – man’s padded overcoat with wide sleeves, mid 19th century
  • Buffonts – gauze scarf late 18th century
  • Bugle beads – long tubular glass beads used for dress trimming
  • Bum-roll – sausage shaped padding worn around hips to shape a skirt, also known as a French or roll farthingale
  • Busk (busque)– long narrow piece of wood, bone, horn or metal used to hold the front of a bodice rigid
  • Buskin – Calf-length boot from Ancient Greece and Rome
  • Bust bodice – padded, boned and taped undergarment, forerunner of the bra
  • Bustier (bustiere) – close-fitting boned bodice
  • Bustle – Wire or whalebone cage worn to fill out the back of a skirt, appears when crinolines decline, reaches its height circa 1880 and out of fashion by 1900
  • Caban – Fitted coat with sleeves, 14th century
  • Cable knit – knitting which resembles rope or cable
  • Cabriolet – bonnet that folds back like the top of a carriage, 18th century
  • Cache-folies – woman’s wig used to conceal a short haircut, early 19th century
  • Caftan (Kaftan) – long open fronted coat, originally from Iran. Reappeared as a fashion style in the 1970s
  • Cagoule (cagoule, Kagoule) – knee-length, lightweight hooded raincoat, designed to be folded up into its hood which doubles up as a bag. There is a short zip at the neck but it is not fully open at the front and must be pulled over the head
  • Calceus / Calcei – half boot or shoe, Ancient Roman
  • Camisole – woman’s underwear for the top part of the body, sleeveless and tight fitting, often trimmed with lace or ribbon
  • Campagus – half boot or shoe – Late Roman and Byzantine to Carolingian
  • Canezou – women’s cape of muslin that was tucked into the belt, early 19th century
  • Canions (cannions)-tight-fitting, full length hose worn under breeches
  • Cannons (canons) – white linen tubes worn by Cavaliers between stockings and high turned over boots, 17th century
  • Capa – Wide cloak with a hood worn in the 16th and 17th century Spain and France
  • Cape – short cloak covering the upper back and shoulders only
  • Capri pants (capris) – close-fitting trousers which end at mid-calf
  • Caraco – Woman’s gown from France, long waisted with a peplum, late 1780s
  • Carbatina – an ancient simple shoe of leather, wrapped over the foot and laced with thongs
  • Carcaille – high flared collar of a houppelande, 15th century
  • Cardigan – Short military jacket worn during the Crimean War, named after the 7th Earl of Cardigan, now refers to a knitted woollen jumper that is open at the front and buttoned
  • Cardinal – women’s hooded shoulder cape, 17th century
  • Cargo pants (cargo trousers) – baggy combat trousers with multiple pockets with accordion folds. They became fashionable in the late 1970s and are now everyday urban wear. Also produced as cargo shorts and cargo skirts
  • Carmagnole – French Revolutionaries jacket, short with a high collar
  • Carrick – great coat with one or more shoulder capes, originally fashionable for gentlemen but later only worn by coachmen
  • Casings – fabric covers for women’s plaited hair, 12th century
  • Cassock – originally a knee-length coat with slit sleeves worn by soldiers and huntsmen in the 17th century but later a longer version became standard liturgical dress
  • Caul – woman’s headdress with decorated mesh side pouches to hold the hair, 15th century
  • Chaconne – ribbon cravat which hung to the chest, 17th century
  • Chainse – A form of chemise, a long flared white linen tunic, belted with tight cuffs
  • Chamarre – full coat decorated with fur and braid, 16th century
  • Chaps – leather over trousers worn for horse riding, typically by cowboys. They have an integrated belt but no seat or crotch. There are motorbike and chainsaw versions
  • Chaperon – hood with shoulder cape, medieval
  • Charlotte – woman’s large hat with a wide brim. Late 18th century
  • Chatelaine – decorative chain on which keys or other items can be hung
  • Chasuble – outermost liturgical vestment, a funnel shaped cloak with a hole for the head
  • Chausses – single leg hose, individual stockings worn over braises, Medieval
  • Chemise – long light untailored tunic worn as an undergarment, the forerunner of the shirt
  • Chemisette – item of women’s to fill in front of a garment without the bulk of a full blouse
  • Chesterfield – black overcoat with a velvet collar, late 19th early 20th century
  • Chignon – a bun hairstyle with a fold or knot of hair at the nape of the neck
  • Chinoiserie – fine embroidery of Chinese patterns
  • Chiton – short tunic worn by both sexes, Ancient Greek
  • Chitterlings – frills or linen or lace at the front of men’s shirts, late 18th and 19th century
  • Chlaine – woollen cloak worn by shepherds and warriors, Ancient Greek
  • Chlamys – short military cloak of dark wool which leaves the right arm uncovered for fighting and can be wrapped around the left arm as a light ‘shield’, Ancient Greece
  • Chopines – platform shoes from Venice 15th to 16th century. The cork soles could be four or five inches thick
  • Cilce – a hair shirt worn by monks as an act of penance. Usually goat’s hair or rough cloth.
  • Circassian (circassienne) – Variant of the polonaise with very short cap sleeves from which narrow wrist length sleeves emerge
  • Circular cut – skirt or pattern cut in one curve or circle
  • Clavi – purple border on a Roman toga to denote members of the senate
  • Claw hammer coat – a swallowtail evening-coat, early 19th century
  • Cloche hat – small closely fitted hat with a very narrow brim, characteristic of the 1920s
  • Clog (sabot) – wooden shoe, some styles are completely carved of wood, others may have leather uppers with a wooden sole. Modern gardening clogs are made of rubber
  • Cloqué – fabric treated to produce a blistered appearance
  • Cloud – light three-cornered headscarf
  • Cocked hat – (bicorne) military hat with the brim turned up and fastened to the crown on two sides
  • Codpiece – padded front of man’s hose, 15th and 16th century, developed because hose originally were constructed from two separate leg pieces and so another piece of cloth was need to fill the gap. Sometimes used as a pocket. The codpiece went out of use in the 1590s.
  • Coif – simple white linen hood, either worn by itself or with a hat overtop
  • Collet monté – (Medici collar) fan-shaped standing collar with v-shaped opening at the front that superseded the ruff, 1540s -1550s
  • Combat boot – army boots that are high enough to protect the ankle. Also adopted as a fashion item by many subcultures from Goths to skinheads
  • Combat trousers – army trousers with many pockets, often in camouflage colours.
  • Combinations – woollen undergarment of one-piece with arms and legs. Buttoned opening down the front
  • Commode – wire frame that supports a frontage hairstyle c1690-1710
  • Conch – large headdress of gauze on a wire frame, late 16th and early 17th century
  • Contouche (kontush) – loose, front closing gown with a pleated back, also known as robes-de-chambres, robe à la française, robe battante, sack dress
  • Cope – cape, sometimes hooded, towards the end of the 15th century it was only used by the clergy
  • Coq plumage – iridescent black and green cockerel feathers
  • Coquard – linen cap to which satin and ostrich plumes were attached, worn by Swiss and German knights in the 16th century
  • Corsage – small decorative spray of flowers attached to the bodice, early 19th century
  • Corselet – woman’s underwear that is a combination of brassiere and girdle which began to replace the girdle from 1914. Also refers to body armour for the torso.
  • Cote – old English form of outerwear
  • Cote-hardie – tight-fitting tunic with wide sleeves worn by both men and women from the 12th to the 14th century. One of the first highly tailored garments
  • Cothurnes – High, tight-fitting boots which laced at the front, worn by huntsmen and travellers in Ancient Greece
  • Coureur – woman’s tight-fitting short top from Revolution period France
  • Court shoes (pumps) – women’s shoe with low cut front and no fastening, the heel and toe are variable depending what is currently in style
  • Covert – short hunting coat from Britain
  • Cowboy boots – long, laceless riding boots with a pointed toe, high heel, leather or exotic animal hide.  The original design is Spanish in origin. The modern rodeo version is called a roper and is lower with a rounded toe and squared off heel
  • Cramignole – velvet hat with turned-up brim and decorated feathers or pompoms, late 15th century to early 16th century
  • Cravat – broad necktie that originated in the 1630s and named after the Croatian mercenaries of Louis XIII
  • Crinoline – petticoat stiffened with horsehair or whalebone to give a bell shape to skirts
  • Crocs – plastic clog with perforated upper, originally designed as a spa shoe and launched in 2002
  • Cucullus – hood or cowl, Ancient Roman
  • Cul de Paris (false bum) – bustle
  • Culottes – men’s knee-breeches of the late 16th and early 17th century. French revolutionaries were known as sans-culottes as they rejected this style in favour of full length pantaloons.  Subsequently it came to refer to woman’s divided skirt.
  • Cummerbund – wide sash from Persia, widely adopted in the west in the 19th century as an alterative to a waistcoat. Survives as formal wear with dinner jacket and black tie
  • Cut-offs – jeans that have had most of the legs removed to form shorts
  • Cyclas – sleeveless surcoat or overdress, there were different styles for both sexes but perhaps best known in the form of a decorated tunic worn over armour,  13th and 14th century
  • Cycling shorts (bike shorts) – the original cycling shorts were made of knitted black wool with a chamois leather crotch but are now tight-fitting garments of spandex
  • Dagging – ornamental edging to a garment, either cut into scallops or serrated, 14th to 17th century
  • Dalmatic – long wide tunic, Ancient Roman but survives as liturgical dress
  • Dart – a pointed tuck taken in to contour a garment to the body
  • Décolleté – low cut neckline, often strapless with bare shoulders
  • Delphos – Ancient Greek style dress of intricately pleated silk designed by Mariano Fortuny in 1909
  • Denier – a unit of measurement of the density of fibres in a fabric
  • Derby – American name for a bowler hat
  • Dhoti – Indian skirt or baggy trousers made from a length of cloth
  • Diamanté – paste or fake diamonds such as rhinestones
  • Diphtera – rough cloak, originally a skin or leather worn by Ancient Greek slaves over their tunic, later a wool or leather cloak worn by shepherds and farmers
  • Dirndl (dirndl skirt) – dress with a tight bodice, low neck and a full skirt, usually sleeveless or with short full sleeves. Traditional Alpine dress in southern Germany and Austria, usually worn with a long apron. Also a full skirt with gathered waistband
  • Djellaba – long loose hooded robe from Morocco, usually worn by men with a red fez hat and slippers. Women sometimes wear theirs with a scarf
  • Do-rag (doo-rag) – head scarf or bandana
  • Doc Martens (Dr. Martens, DMs) – boots with air-cushioned soles invented by Dr Klaus Maertens in 1945. Typically black with yellow stitching around the sole and AirWair trademark. In the 1960s they became popular with skinheads and in the 1970s the punks.
  • Dogaline – Venetian gown with huge flaring sleeves of rich fabrics and lined with fur, 14th and 15th century
  • Dolman sleeve – a batwing sleeve
  • Doublet – man’s tight fitting buttoned jacket, 14th to mid 17th century. Derived from a padded garment worn under armour
  • Drainpipe trousers (drainpipes) – trousers with very tight fitting legs associated with the Teddy Boys of the 1950s
  • Drawers – long loose underpants
  • Duckbill shoes – also known as bear’s claws, shoes with exaggerated square toes late 15th and early 16th century, replaced the pointed toe style of shoe
  • Dungarees – a type of coarse undyed calico but in England it also refers to a type of sleeveless overall with bib front
  • Duster – canvas or linen overall used while riding, adapted for driving a motor car in the early 20th century.
  • Echelle – stomacher with a row of bows
  • Empire-line – Straight dress or coat with the waist-line under the breast. Popularised by Empress Josephine of the French Napoleonic Empire 1804-1814
  • Engageantes – tiered sleeve ruffles, late 17th and early 18th century. In the 1850s refers to a detachable false undersleeve worn under the open bell-shaped pagoda sleeves worn to compliment the bell-shaped crinoline.
  • Ephod – apron-like garment worn by the Jewish high priest, white linen decorated with blue purple and scarlet and interwoven with gold thread
  • Escarpin – low flat light shoes of satin or silk, usually slashed on top, 16th century
  • Espadrilles – flat heeled sandal with jute rope sole, originally from the Pyrenees. Modern espadrilles usually have wedge heels
  • Espirits – plume that sticks straight up from the hair or hat, early 19th century
  • Etui – needle case, container for pins, needles or pencils, suspended from a chatelaine
  • Exomide – short tunic without sleeves, open down the right side, worn by servants or philosophers who wished to show their disregard for luxury, Ancient Greece and Rome
  • Facing – edging of fur or rich fabric sewn to collar, cuffs or hems to give the impression that the entire garment was lined. Now refers to any trimming on the inside edge of a garment
  • Faggotting – embroidery stitch to give a decorative join between two edges
  • Falling ruff – unstarched ruff which fell in tiers on the shoulder, replaced the cartwheel ruff at the start of the 17th century
  • False sleeve – long panel of material that hung to the ground that was added to an open sleeve, early 14th century
  • Farthingale – metal hoop worn around the waist which gave shape to a skirt, originated in early 16th century Spain but became an important fashion in Tudor England
  • Fedora – soft felt hat with brim all the way around, creased crown which is pinched in at the front. Popular from 1910 through to the 1930s when it began to be replaced by the Homburg. In cinema it is often associated with gangsters and detectives, particularly when paired with a trench coat, as well as B-movie heroes and more recently Indiana Jones
  • Ferronière – pearl or other jewel hung on the forehead by a chain, its use as a fashion accessory in the late 16th century and again in the 1830s may be due to outbreaks of syphilis as it can be used to conceal lesions
  • Fibula – an ancient design of brooch used to fasten clothes and cloaks, it was the forerunner of the safety pin
  • Finchu – woman’s scarf made from a square of lightweight linen folded into a triangle, worn over the shoulders and knotted round the neck, late 18th and early 19th century
  • Fieltro – hooded, high-collared three-quarter length cloak, 16th century Spain
  • Fillet – a head band
  • Fisherman’s jumper – cable knit woollen jumper
  • Fishnet stockings – stocking with an open, diamond shaped knit
  • Flares (bell-bottoms, loons) – trousers that are wider from the knees downwards , developed from sailor’s trousers but became particularly fashionable in the 1960s and 1970s
  • Flammeum – flame coloured wedding veil, Ancient Roman
  • Flip-flop (Japanese sandal, jandal, zōri, thongs) – flat, backless rubber sandal with a Y-shaped thong. Based on the traditional woven Japanese zōri and also used as beach wear in New Zealand in the 1930s. After the Second World War the style was brought to the Western World by returning servicemen. Worn without socks except the zōri which can be worn with tabi.
  • Flounce – strip of gathered fabric sewn onto the bottom edge of a skirt
  • Fontages – very high hairstyle from the 1680s, involves wire, muslin, lace and ribbon
  • Footless tights – thin leggings from thigh to heel
  • Frac – man’s overcoat with turned down collar, early 19th century
  • Frock-coat – overcoat with knee-length skirts all round the base, 19th century
  • Frog – or Chinese frog, ornamental braiding used as a fastening
  • Furbelow – decorative trimming
  • G-string – narrow underwear or swimwear, although similar to a thong it is skimpier and more string like. Developed as a very early form of clothing and re-appeared in the West for exotic dancers in the 1920s. Different styles include the T-string, V-string and C-string.
  • Gabardine – tough worsted wool fabric, smooth on one side and diagonally ribbed on the other. Used for suits, overcoats and trousers. Invented by Thomas Burberry in 1888
  • Gaberdine – loose woollen coat or sleeved cloak, belted at the waist
  • Gaiters – leather or thick linen ankle covers, buttoned down the side and with a strap which passes under the shoe
  • Gallants – small bows worn in the hair or on garments by both sexes in the 17th century
  • Galligaskins (gilligaskins) – knee length, loose, wide breeches originally worn by sailors, 16th and 17th century. Leather leg guards worn by sportsmen and equestrians
  • Gamashes – cloth leggings worn over boots and legs to protect against rain and mud
  • Gansey (Guernsey) – knitted waterproof woollen jumper traditionally worn by fishermen
  • Garde-corps – outer tunic with wide slit sleeves and hood, 13th to 14th century
  • Garibaldi – woman’s blouse from 1861 based on General Garibaldi’s red shirt which was loose fitting and with full sleeves and a waist band. By 1862 the term referred to any loose blouse with bishop sleeves
  • Garter – ribbon or cord to hold up stockings
  • Gauntlet – glove with funnel shaped cuffs to protect the forearm
  • Geta – Japanese shoe that resembles a combination of patten, clog and flip-flop, a wooden sandal with elevated base
  • Gipon – under-armour 14th century, waisted, padded and buttoned down the front
  • Girandole – earring with a central piece and three stones hanging from it
  • Girdle – fabric band or broad belt worn around the waist as a foundation garment to shape the waist
  • Gloves – covering for the hand with separate fingers, worn for warmth, protection or for fashion
  • Glovelettes – fingerless gloves
  • Godet, Gore  or Gusset – triangular insert of cloth to give a garment shape
  • Gonelle or Gonne – knee length tunic worn by both men and women in the Roman period.  Medieval knights also wore a gonelle over their armour. The word gown is derived from this
  • Go-go boots – low heeled woman’s boots of the 1960s, calf to knee length
  • Gousset (gusset) – chainmail insert sewn into an arming-doublet to give protection at the joints not covered by the overlying platemail, usually at the elbows, armpits and knees
  • Guepière –  waist-clincher corset, in the 1940s developed into the waspie corset for the New Look
  • Guimp – white linen headdress of the 14th and 15th century. Revived in the 19th century as a short chemise
  • Gypsy skirt (Boho skirt, peasant or tiered skirt) – the exact name for this style of skirt is variable but all refer to a short on long tiered or flounced skirt.
  • Haïk – rectangle of wool cloth worn as an outer garment from Saudi Arabia
  • Haincelin – short version of the houpplelande, French early 15th century
  • Half-beaver – hat made of beaver fur, 17th and 18th century
  • Halter-neckline – sleeveless, high at the front and tied behind the neck leaving the back and shoulders bare, fashionable in the 1930s
  • Halter top – women’s sleeveless top that is held up by a thin strap around the back of the neck
  • Hawaiian shirt (see also Aloha shirt) – brilliantly coloured short sleeved shirt with geometric patterns
  • Hawaiian shorts – brilliantly coloured shorts with geometric patterns
  • Headband (hairband) – loop of elastic material for holding hair away from the face
  • Headrail – woman’s headdress covering head, neck and shoulders, 10th and 11th century
  • Hennin – woman’s conical hat, usually worn with a veil, 14th and 15th century
  • Hessian boot – high tasselled boot, 1795-1830
  • Hijab – Muslim modest dress for women, covers a number of different styles of garment
  • Himation – outer robe usually worn over a chiton instead of a cloak, Ancient Greek
  • Hobble skirt – tight fitting full length skirt that was difficult to walk in
  • Homberg – man’s felt hat, narrow stiff brim and indented crown. Similar to a fedora but with no pinches at the front of the crown and with the edge of the brim sharply turned up
  • Hoodie – hooded sweatshirt
  • Hoop-petticoat – or panier hoops were petticoats of stiffened fabric with three or four rows of whalebones with tapes for control, 18th century
  • Hosiery – garments for the legs or feet
  • Hot pants – very short tight short trousers, fashionable in the 1970s and 1990s
  • Houppelande – long voluminous gown with huge sleeves, a high status garment of rich cloth, 14th to 15th century. Ancestor of modern academic and legal robes
  • Hurluberlu – woman’s hairstyle of short tight ringlets, c.1671
  • Jabot – lace ruffle that concealed the opening of the shirt front
  • Jack – military doublet, layered canvas and metal
  • Jackboot – knee-high black leather boot with a broad heel, first used by horsemen in the 17th century
  • Jacquette – woman’s short lace jacket of the 19th century modelled on an 18th century hunting jacket
  • Jeans (blue jeans) – denim trousers which come in a number of styles or fits such as skinny, boyfriend, wide-cut, slim-fit, straight-cut etc. There are a number of different finishes such as distressed, stone wash
  • Jellies (jelly shoes) – shiny, brightly coloured semi-transparent PVC shoes, often infused with glitter. Fashionable in the 1980s and again in the 1990s. Redesigned in a more adult style in the early 21st century
  • Jemima – elastic sided court shoe
  • Jerkin – collarless, sleeveless outer garment, originated as a 16th century sleeveless leather doublet
  • Jockey – a sleeve flounce worn at the shoulder by women, early 19th century
  • Jodphurs – riding breeches very full from hip to knee but skin tight knee to ankle, introduced from India at the start of the 20th century. Worn with ankle length jodhpur or paddock boots
  • Journade – short circular garment with full sleeves of the 15th century and a flowing cassock with slit sleeves of the 16th century
  • Jorts – short jeans
  • Jubba – Long loose robe from Syria
  • Jubon – fitted jacket of the 14th century and a sleeveless jacket of the 15th and 16th century
  • Juliet shoe – woman’s house slipper with heel and cut out panels at the side, early 20th century
  • Jumper (pullover, sweater or jersey) – heavy overshirt covering torso and arms usually of knitted wool, put on by pulling over the head
  • Justaucorps – man’s knee-length jacket, flared below the waist and deep turned back cuffs 17th and 18th century
  • Kaftan – long full gown, became popular in western culture in the 1960s
  • Kakofnitch – woman’s hat in the form of a tiara, Russian
  • Kapa – woman’s velvet pill-box hat from Yugoslavia
  • Kaunakès – fur garment, Ancient Sumerian later used to describe a wool cloak or skirt with a tufted pattern to resemble overlapping petals or feathers
  • Kerchief – simple cloth head covering made from a square or triangle of cloth, sometimes worn by women for religious reasons
  • Kilt – knee-length skirt of heavy woollen material, pleated. In Scotland they are traditionally made of tartan but can be made of other materials. There are now male and female styles including the mini kilt
  • Kinky boots – woman’s thigh length boots with high heels, 1960s
  • Kirtle – tunic-like garment of the medieval period, later used to describe a one-piece woman’s tunic worn over a chemise but under a gown
  • Kimono – Japanese gown with long sleeves, usually satin or silk
  • Kitten heel – low slender heel set in from the back of the shoe
  • Knickers – women’s underpants
  • Knickerbockers – baggy knee-length trousers, gathered at the knee
  • Knotless knitting (naalbinding) is an ancient technique of textile production similar to but distinct from knitting. It does not require a continuous piece of yarn and produces a dense hardwearing fabric often used for socks or mittens.
  • Kontush (Contouche) – Hungarian gown with a pleated back
  • Lacerna – long cloak with a hood that can be worn over a toga, Ancient Roman
  • La Modiste – lace used to conceal the deep décolletage of 18th century gowns
  • Landrines – Cavalier style boots with flared tops, 17th century
  • Laticlave – broad purple stripe on the front of a tunic to denote a Roman senator
  • Leading strings – strips of fabric attached to the backs of children’s clothes and used to steady them as they learned to walk, 17th and 18th century
  • Lederhosen –leather shorts with wide leather braces, traditional Alpine costume
  • Leg-o-mutton sleeves (gigot) – sleeve that was fitted from wrist to elbow but from the elbow back to the body became very wide, fashionable in the 1830s and late 19th century
  • Leg warmers (ankle warmers) – long footless socks for the lower legs worn by dancers but became a fashion accessory in the 1980s
  • Leggings – nylon-lycra blend skin-tight trousers, became fashionable in the 1980s
  • Liberty cap (Phrygian bonnet) – soft, red conical bonnet.  In Ancient Greece it represented non-Greek ‘barbarism’ as it originated in Phrygia in Anatolia. In Ancient Rome it was presented to freed slaves and thus came to represent liberty. Used as a symbol of liberty in the American Revolutionary War and the French Revolution
  • Lingerie dress – Edwardian white summer dress of washable linen or cotton, a development of the tea gown
  • Liripipe – elongated tail of a hood from the 13th and 14th century
  • Loafer (penny loafer) – low slip-on shoes of moccasin style
  • Lodier – padded roll used to enlarge hips, 17th century
  • Loincloth – strip of fabric worn around the hips and between legs
  • Lounge suit (sack suit) – plain style suit with no waist seam, buttons placed low on the front of the jacket. Introduced in the 1850s
  • Louis heel (Pompadour heel) – heel and sole made in one section, concave with an outward taper at the bottom, named after Louis XIV of France
  • Macaroni – dandies of the 1760s
  • Mackintosh – rubberised fabric raincoat developed by Charles Macintosh and first sold in 1824
  • Mafor – long narrow veil for head and shoulders, 5th to 11th centuries
  • Maheutres – large shoulder pad covering the join between sleeve and bodice, mid 15th century
  • Maillot – woman’s one-piece swimsuit or leotard with high cut legs
  • Mammilare – fabric band worn by women around the chest, Ancient Greek
  • Mandillion – tabard
  • Manta – Spanish shawl of the poncho type
  • Manteline – decorated garment worn over armour for ceremonial occasions, 15th and 16th centuries
  • Mantilla – Spanish shawl of lace or silk that covers the head and shoulders
  • Mantilla comb – high tortoiseshell comb, Spanish, usually worn with a mantilla
  • Mantle – any sleeveless cloak
  • Mantua – loose gown of the late 17th century but developed into an overgown worn with an underdress or stomacher and petticoat in the early 18th century. Elbow length cuffed sleeves and long train looped up behind to reveal petticoat
  • Marlotte – women’s cloak with standing collar and short puffed sleeves 16th century
  • Martingale – short belt at the back of an overcoat or jacket
  • Martingale breeches – breeches with removable panel, 16th century
  • Mathilde – strip of embroidery used to decorate the front of a dress, early 19th century
  • Maxi dress – long, often floor-length sleeveless dress, fitted top and flowing skirt
  • Maxi skirt – long flowing skirt
  • Medici collar – fan shaped standing collar supported by wires
  • Microskirt (Pelmet) – extremely short skirt, usually less than 20cms
  • Miniskirt (mini-skirt) – skirt with hemline significantly above the knee, fashion symbol of the swinging London of the 1960s pioneered by Mary Quant
  • Mini dress – dress with hemline significantly above the knee
  • Mini kilt – women’s short kilt
  • Mittens – hand covering with a separate thumb but with the fingers covered together, warmer than a glove but allowing less manual dexterity
  • Mob cap – linen bonnet often with a ribbon band, 18th century but still used by servants and nurses into the 19th century
  • Moccasin – deerskin shoe, gathered around the foot and laced to an upper piece, North American Indian
  • Modelliste – fashion designer whose work is shown under the label of the house that employs them
  • Monokini – swimwear, bikini in which the top is connected to the bottom
  • Moon boot – padded boot, 1970s fashion trend
  • Mortier – skull cap with flat top worn by lawyers in medieval France
  • Moufles – long sleeves that covered part of the hand, 14th and 15th century
  • Mousquetaire – Cavalier’s leather gauntlet trimmed with lace, also a woman’s elbow length glove from the early 20th century
  • Muff – cylinder of padded fur used to warm hands
  • Muffler – scarf for winter wear, developed from the cravat during the 19th century
  • Mule – women’s flat soled slippers that first became fashionable in the 16th and 17th centuries. Today a mule is defined as a backless shoe and can have any type of heel
  • Neckerchief – scarf worn by sailors and scouts, fastened with a clasp or woggle
  • Neckstock – a band of material worn around the neck as a cravat, late 18th and early 19th century
  • Negligee – women’s nightgown, developed in 18th century France as a full length nightdress but by the 1920s resembled a thin satin evening dress and have continued to become shorter and thinner
  • New Look – Christian Dior’s 1947 style with tight bodice and full skirt
  • New York surtout – short black overcoat of the 1850s with wide lapels
  • Nightshirt  – nightwear for men and boys and the predecessor of the pyjama which replaced them mid 19th century, these were calf length buttoned shirts with fitted sleeves
  • Nithsdale – hooded riding cloak 18th century
  • Nivernois – a small tricorne hat worn with a wig by macaronis in the 1770s
  • Norfolk jacket – loose single-breasted belted jacket, pleated front and back. Late 19th century
  • Obi – wide kimono belt of embroidered silk or satin
  • Olicula – woman’s hooded cap, Ancient Roman
  • Opera cloak – velvet, knee-length cloak with standing collar, tied with a tasselled cord, 1850s
  • Opera hat (gibus hut) – collapsible top hat with internal spring so it could snap open or shut, invented 1823
  • Orby – American single-breasted cutaway frock coat, early 20th century
  • Overalls – protective overgarment, sometimes used as an alternative name for a boiler suit and sometimes referring to a sleeveless  version with bib front such as dungarees
  • Oxford bags- very baggy trousers, 1920s, the fashion reappeared in the 1970s as the ‘Northern Soul’
  • Oxford gillie – man’s sport shoe, late 19th century
  • Oxford ties – patent leather dancing shoe for men
  • Pack-a-Mac (pacamac) – lightweight waterproof plastic coat which folds down into a small container
  • Paenula – heavy cloak of wool or leather for use in bad weather, may be hooded, Ancient Roman
  • Pagne skirt – colourful wrap-around African style skirt
  • Pagoda sleeve – sleeve that flares out towards the cuff, first referred to men’s sleeves of the 1730s and later for women’s sleeves of the 19th century
  • Pailette – large metal or plastic sequin
  • Paisons – Ancient Persian trousers
  • Palazzo pyjamas – loose evening trousers invented by Italian princess Irene Galitzine in 1960
  • Pallatine – late 17th century fur stole or later a deep collar of lawn or lace
  • Palisade (commode) – wire frame covered with silk to form a headdress
  • Palla – woman’s cloak, Ancient Rome. Latin name for peplos
  • Pallium – Ancient Greek equivalent of the toga, an outer garment made from a single rectangle of fabric
  • Paludamentum – Roman general’s purple woollen cloak
  • Panama – the Panama hat is the traditional brimmed hat of Ecuador made of the plaited leaves of the toquilla straw plant. It became fashionable in Europe at the end of the 19th and the start of the 20th century
  • Pants – shortened version of the word pantaloons, in English referring to underwear and in American referring to trousers
  • Panty – American worn for knickers
  • Pantyhose –American term for tights
  • Paniers – reed or whalebone cages worn on the hips by women at the start of the 18th century to fill out a skirt
  • Pantalettes – pantaloons for young girls which fell below the skirt hem, women would also wear ankle length pantalettes under a crinoline
  • Pantaloons – breeches or trousers
  • Pantoffle – overshoe without any back, 16th century
  • Parasol – umbrella to give shade from the sun rather than rain
  • Parka (snorkel parka) – Aleut fur lined tunic with hood. The snorkel parka is a knee-length cold-weather coat stuffed with synthetic fibres and a fake fur-lined hood. Full-length front opening with zip fastening  that allowed it to be done up beyond the chin to form a ‘snorkel’ to look out of
  • Parti-coloured dress – garment with alternate blocks of colour 12th to 14th century
  • Parure – set of matching jewellery
  • Patlock – short tight-fitting doublet worn by pages, 15th century
  • Pattens – medieval wooden platform soles used to keep shoes clean when walking in mud, from the 17th century a flat metal circle replaced the wooden sole and it was mainly used by women. Pattens were also useful for keeping hems clean as they often reached the ground
  • Pavé – jewellery setting which has the stones closely set together to hide the metal mount
  • Peascod-bellied doublet – padded doublet with exaggerated pot-belly shape, late 16th century
  • Pedal pushers (clam diggers)– calf-length trousers popular with cyclists in the 1950s, often turned-up
  • Pelmet – very short skirt, often of denim
  • Pencil skirt – close fitting knee length skirt with a slit, often worn with a tailored jacket
  • Pelerine – woman’s short cloak based on the design of a pilgrim’s cloak, 19th century
  • Pelicon – fur-lined loose tunic 13th and 14th century
  • Pelisse – in the medieval period a fur-lined and padded cloak, by the mid 18th century it was described as a woman’s ankle –length dress/coat of silk or velvet with or without sleeves
  • Peplos – women’s outer garment in the form of a long robe, Ancient Greek. Made from a large rectangle of fabric fastened at the shoulders with fibulae brooches
  • Peplum – Roman version of a peplos but came to mean short overskirt of flounce attached to the waist-line of a dress, blouse or jacket
  • Peruke (periwig) – wig 17th to early 19th century
  • Pet en L’air – robe à la Française with a shortened jacket-like bodice 1750s
  • Petticoat – (underskirt) skirt or skirts worn under an outer skirt or gown. From the 16th to mid 19th centuries they were often designed to be seen through open fronted gowns.  Often used to shape the skirt overtop
  • Petticoat breeches – loose pleated breeches of the 1650s and 1660s, usually decorated with ribbons at the waist and knees. The replaced the Spanish breeches of the 1650s and were themselves replaced by rhinegraves in the early 1660s
  • Phrygian bonnet – see Liberty cap
  • Pianelle – undershoe worn with patterns outside or by itself as a form of slipper inside 16th century
  • Pigache – shoe with long, upward turning toe, 12th century
  • Pileus – man’s brimless felt cap, Ancient Roman (see liberty cap)
  • Pixie boots – ankle length boot with low heel and pointed toe, 1980s
  • Platform shoes – shoes with very thick soles to increase the height of the wearer, in various forms they have been used since antiquity but are particularly associated with the 1970s.
  • Pleated shirt – shirt with vertical pleats at the front
  • Plimsoll (daps, sneakers, tennis shoe, sandshoe) – shoe with a rubber sole and a canvas upper, developed as beachwear by the Liverpool Rubber Company (later Dunlop) in the 1830s
  • Plus-fours – baggy breeches which reached four inches below the knee, 1920s
  • Points – metal tipped laces for joining sleeves to armseyes and doublets to breeches
  • Polo shirt – short-sleeved sports shirt
  • Polonaise (milkmaid dress)– gown with fitted bodice and skirt drawn up to form three large puffs, one at the back and one on each hip, elbow length sleeves. Fashionable 1775-1780 and again in the 1870s
  • Pompadour – hairstyle in which the hair is brushed off the forehead into a high roll at the top of the head
  • Poncho – blanket-like cloak with a hole for the head, South American
  • Postilion basque – gathered basque attached to the bottom of a bodice, 19th century
  • Poufs – padded cushions worn under a hooped skirt
  • Poulaine (crackowes) – shoes with extremely long pointed toes, 15th century
  • Pourpoint – doublet
  • Prétintailles – coloured cut-out motifs applied to women’s gowns, 17th century
  • Princess dress (Gabrielle) – dress with skirt and bodice cut in one piece, fullness in back, late 19th century
  • Princess line – style of dress with continuous vertical panels shaping the waist and without a waistline seam. Bodice and skirt cut as one piece
  • Prom dress – formal A-line dresses that reach to just below the knee
  • Puffball – skirt, dress or sleeve that is puffed out
  • Pumps – lightweight strapless shoe with seamless front upper, originated as the ‘pompe’ a heelless shoe worn by men and servants in the 16th century. Also a man’s patent leather dancing shoe with a bow.  Also the flat pump or ballet-flat as a woman’s shoe.  A simple low-cut flat shoe without fastenings
  • Puttees – strips of cloth covering the lower part of the leg covering boot and trouser for support and protection for riders or soldiers
  • Quarter – part of a shoe that supports the side of the foot
  • Quilting – a form of medieval padded armour
  • Quitasol – large fan that could double as a sun shade, American 18th century
  • Ra-ra skirt (rah-rah skirt) – short flounced or tiered skirt derived from American cheer-leaders skirts. Became fashionable in the 1980s
  • Rabat – linen and lace collar worn with a doublet in the 17th century. Retained as liturgical wear  until the 19th century in the form of a black ‘dickie’ style shirtfront
  • Rabbi – triangular piece of cloth that attaches to a collar to cover the chest
  • Racerback – design of woman’s swimsuit developed by the Speedo company in 1928 which uses a halter back to keep the shoulders bare and maximise mobility
  • Raglan – man’s overcoat with Raglan sleeves
  • Raglan sleeve – sleeve that attaches in one piece fully to the collar leaving a diagonal seam from armpit to collarbone. Invented by Lord Raglan during the Crimean War
  • Ramillies hat – tricorne hat which has the back of the brim cocked higher than the front, 18th century. There is also a wig of this period by the same name
  • Rail – loose cape worn over a bodice, 18th century
  • Rebato – wire support for a ruff, 16th and 17th century
  • Redingote – man’s double-breasted top coat, French 18th century. The word is based on a French alteration of the English ‘riding coat’. At the end of the 18th century it became a woman’s garment, the redingcoat à la Hussar, a pelisse that was trimmed down the front with military-style braids
  • Reefer jacket– double-breasted thigh-length donkey-jacket style seaman’s top coat. Thin lapels and three or four sets of brass buttons
  • Reticule (ridicule) – small decorated purse introduced in the 1790s when dresses became to slim to incorporate pockets, went out of use during the 1920s
  • Revers – the turned-back edge of a coat or waistcoat, also refers to the fashion of turning back the front of the bodice to show the fine lining which was prevalent in France in the 1580s and 1590s
  • Rheno – short cape of fur, medieval
  • Ricinium – woman’s veil or shawl that covers head and shoulders, Ancient Roman to Dark Age
  • Riding habit – women’s clothing for horse riding, from the 17th to the 19th centuries this usually consisted of a tailored shirt, jacket, long skirt and a hat of a formal men’s style
  • Robe Anglaise – late 18th century woman’s gown with bodice cut in one piece and overskirt parted in front to reveal a matching petticoat, or a child’s dress late 19th century
  • Robe à l’anglaise (nightgown) informal gown with pleated back
  • Robe à la française (sack-back gown) – the most informal version was called a sacque but a formal wear version also developed with a tight underbodice and loose box pleat back (Watteau pleats)
  • Robe de style (infanta style) –style of dress based on those seen in 17th century paintings. Tight-fitting bodice and long bouffant skirt. Dropped waistline. Designed by Jeanne Lanvin and popular in the 1920s.
  • Rochet – man’s short collarless coat with short split sleeves, early 17th century. Also a white clerical vestment worn by bishops
  • Rond – padded roll used to enlarge women’s hairstyles in the 17th century
  • Roquelaure – large overcoat with cape named after the Duke of Roquelaure
  • Rosette – circular ribbon bow used to decorate shoes in the 17th century
  • Ruche – crimped lace or gauze used as a trimming around the neck, this developed into the ruffs of the late 16th century
  • Ruff- starched collar of the late 16th and early 17th century
  • Ruffle – strip of fabric pleated as a frill
  • S-curve – Fashionable female silhouette of the Edwardian period, created by the use of a corset to push out the bust and backside, leaving a tiny waist.
  • Sabot pantaloons – pantaloons with wide bottom and close fitting legs, fashionable in 1891
  • Sabot sleeve – woman’s sleeve, tight fitting to the elbow and trimmed with gauze ruffles
  • Sabotine – shoe with wooden heel made by World War One soldiers for use in the trenches
  • Sabot – wooden shoes or clogs
  • Sabretache – military leather bag hung from belt, 18th century. In late 18th century France it developed into the first women’s handbag
  • Sack-coat – man’s short loose coat
  • Sack dress (sac, saque, contouche)- A style of dress with free falling, pleated loose backs from 1705, sometimes incorrectly called Watteau gowns.  Also a style in the late 1950s, introduced by Hubert Givenchy in 1957 with a slim silhouette, evolved into the sheath dress. In the 1960s a boxy mini dress also known as a shift dress
  • Sacque – semi-informal version of the Robe à la française or a woman’s full loose hip-length jacket also a loose fitting garment for a child
  • Sacristan – brass farthingale with 5 or 6 hoops, Spanish, late 17th century
  • Safeguard – overskirt with matching cloak worn by women when riding, 17th and 18th century
  • Sagum – blanket-sized woollen cloak, Ancient Celtic and Roman, doubled as a bedroll
  • Saie (Saye) – beltless page’s coat of rich fabric, buttoned down the front, 16th century
  • Sailor suit – white naval uniform with bell-bottom trousers, blue collar and trim and hat. Children’s outfit from 1870s to mid 20th century
  • Salopettes – skiwear, over trousers that are worn with a ski jacket, they are held up by braces
  • Samarre – short loose woman’s jacket of velvet or silk, Dutch
  • Sandal – shoe made of a leather sole strapped to the foot, based on the Roman solea
  • Sarong – South-East Asian robe made by wrapping a wide strip of cloth around the body
  • Sayon – belted cassock, 16th century
  • Sbernia – long scarf draped from a pin on the right shoulder, 16th and 17th century
  • Scarf – originally a leather satchel worn across the chest, what is now known as a scarf developed from the cravat in the 19th century
  • Schenti – Ancient Egyptian kilt-like loincloth
  • Segmentum – decorative band on woman’s dress, Ancient Roman
  • Shawl – rectangle of cloth worn across the shoulders, originating in Ancient Persia but not becoming fashionable in Europe until the late 18th century
  • Shell – sleeveless and collarless blouse worn by women under a suit’s jacket
  • Shell suit – lightweight track suit of matching zip-front jacket and elasticated trousers both with a brightly coloured outer nylon shell, often with panels of different colours, late 1980s-1990s
  • Sheath dress – ankle-length, straight, figure-hugging dress of the 1920s and 30s
  • Shift – sometimes called a smock, wide loose-fitting tunic, female underwear
  • Shift dress – short dress popularised by Mary Quant in the 1960s
  • Shirt – upper body garment with collar, sleeves and cuffs, originally a male undergarment.
  • Shirtwaist (tailored waist) – a woman’s blouse constructed like a man’s shirt, c1890-1920
  • Shorts (short trousers) – trousers with knee-length or shorter legs
  • Simarra – long sleeved ankle-length gown worn by Venetian senators in the 14th and 15th centuries later used to describe an open outergown worn over an undergown, still used by magistrates
  • Siren-suit – a jumpsuit or boiler suit used during the Second World War as a garment that could be quickly put on in an air-raid. Also used for children
  • Skarabicon – Outer robe from Byzantine
  • Ski pants – stretchy leggings invented for skiing in 1952 by Maria and Willy Bogner
  • Skilts – loose fitting below knee-length brown breeches with fitted waist worn by farmers in 18th century America
  • Skimmer – woman’s wide-brimmed hat, worn over a lawn cap and tied with a ribbon under the chin. In America a term for a type of straw boater worn by Barbershop choirs and for electioneering
  • Skinny jeans (slim-fit, carrot, cigarette or drainpipe) – jeans with very tight fitting legs
  • Skiradion – Byzantine headdress
  • Skort – woman’s shorts with a strip of fabric to conceal them to give the appearance of a short skirt
  • Slacks – casual trousers, the term was introduced in the 1920s to describe trousers worn for sporting activities, can be male or female
  • Slingback  – women’s backless shoe held on with a strap that crosses the heel or ankle
  • Slip dress – lightweight slinky dress with thin straps resembling underwear
  • Slashing – Renaissance fashion for cutting clothes to reveal fabric of a contrasting colour underneath
  • Sleeve garter – garter worn on the upper arm to adjust sleeve length, late 19th century
  • Slicker – waterproof overcoat of oilskin, rubberised fabric or plastic
  • Slingbacks – backless woman’s shoe with strap that crosses behind the heel
  • Slops – unpadded knee-length breeches, 16th and 17th century
  • Smock (smock-frock) – agricultural outer garment of wool or heavy linen, early 18th century of possibly earlier. Characterised by narrow unpressed pleats on the front, back and sleeves and decorated by an embroidery style called smocking. Different styles include the round smock, shirt smock and coat smock
  • Smoking jacket – man’s velvet lounge coat
  • Sneakers– gym-shoe, American term
  • Snood – woman’s hair net or close fitting hood which covers the back of the head
  • Sock – knitted or woven covering for the foot, a type of hosiery
  • Solana – straw hat with no crown to enable the hair to be bleached by the sun, Italian 16th century
  • Solea – Roman sandal with wood or leather sole and laced by passed a cord over the top of the foot
  • Sombrero – Traditional Spanish hat, the design was introduced to South America where it developed into the extremely wide brimmed form familiar as the Mexican hat
  • Sorquenin – Woman’s tunic with tight-fitting bodice, 13th to 19th century
  • Sottana – undergown in alternately coloured cloth, 12th to 13th century
  • Soulette – leather strap to hold on spurs or pattens
  • Sou’wester  (sowester) – soft broad brimmed waterproof hat worn by sailors
  • Spat – short cloth or leather gaiter worn on the upper part of the shoes and fastened under the instep, late 19th early 20th century.
  • Spangles – tiny metal pieces designed to catch the light and used to decorate fabric, famously used by Charles Frederick Worth on silk tulle.
  • Speedo (swim briefs, racing briefs) – men’s swimwear, tight-fitting with V-shaped form and solid back
  • Spencer – (Short Spencer jacket) short top coat with long sleeves decorated with frogging, worn over top of a tailed coat, 1790s. A female version was developed and worn as a sort of cardigan on a light muslin dress
  • Sporran – large purse worn on a chain at the front of a kilt
  • Stacked heels (stack heel or built heels) – shoes that are designed to look like the heels are made of thin layers of wood.
  • Steeple-headdress – conical headdress, 15th century
  • Steinkirk cravat – cravat worn with ends tucked into the button hole or bodice, 1692
  • Stemma – Byzantine Emperor’s crown, a circlet with gemstones topped with a cross
  • Stetson – “ten-gallon” or cowboy hat
  • Stiletto heel (spike heel) – high, thin pointed heel named after a type of dagger
  • Stivali – horseman’s high soft boots, 13th and 14th century
  • Stola – long, lightweight short sleeved robe worn with a belt by Roman women. This was the female equivalent of the toga.
  • Stomacher – stiff v-shaped panel on the front of a bodice, often richly decorated, 16th to 18th century
  • Stove pipe (cigarette legs) – straight ankle length fitted trousers
  • Strophium – see mammilare, an Ancient Roman bra formed by a strip of fabric
  • Subarmale – Roman soldier’s sleeveless tunic
  • Subucula – under tunic, Ancient Roman
  • Succinta – belt, Ancient Roman
  • Suffibulum – white linen headdress bordered with purple and fastened under the chin, worn by Vestal Virgins, Ancient Roman
  • Suit – formal set of clothes, usually consisting of a jacket, waist coat and trousers usually with a hat
  • Supparium – short linen garment worn by women under the subucula, Ancient Roman
  • Supportasse – wireframe to support cartwheel ruffs, 16th and early 17th century
  • Surcoat – medieval outer-garment in the case of knights it was slit at the front and back and also bore the coat of arms. An over tunic or over dress
  • Suspender belt (garter belt) – women’s underwear worn around the waist and used to hold up stockings
  • Swag – hanging fold of material. Used as a decoration on 18th century women’s gowns
  • Sweatband – headband designed for use in sport or exercise to keep sweat out of the eyes but also a fashion accessory of the 1970s and 1980s
  • Sweatshirt – thick cotton jumper
  • Synthesis – informal tunic worn at meal times, Ancient Roman
  • T-Shirt (tee shirt)- buttonless, collarless, pocketless top with short sleeves that is pulled on over the head. Often with a logo or design on front. An early form developed in the 1880s as an undervest but the modern form seems to be developed from an item of US naval dress.
  • Tab – small flap sewn into a garment
  • Tabi – traditional Japanese ankle socks with a separation between the big toe and the other toes allowing them to be worn with the flip-flop style zōri and geta
  • Tabard – military or ceremonial tunic put over the head and open at the sides
  • Tablion – richly decorated lozenge shaped panel on the front of a Byzantine cloak
  • Taenia – Ancient Greek headband
  • Taglioni – short unwaisted men’s overcoat trimmed with braid, usually with a checked lining, named after the 19th century dancer Taglioni
  • Tailored coat – woman’s coat of severe cut worn buttoned, from 1910
  • Tailor-mades (tailleurs) – woman’s wool or tweed suit with ankle-length skirt and matching jacket
  • Tailored suit – woman’s suit of jacket and skirt, first seen in Paris in the 1880s and accepted as day-wear in England and France by the start of the 20th century
  • Tails – man’s formal evening dress with swallow tails. Black serge jacket with silk lapels, black serge trousers with braid down the side worn with a stiff fronted, wing-collared shirt, white waistcoat, white tie and top hat
  • Talma- long hooded cloak, early 19th century
  • Tam o’ Shanter –Scottish bonnet, woollen cap with full crown, tight headband and a pom-pom on top, worn by men and women in the 19th century
  • Tank top (vest, sweater vest)– sleeveless jumper
  • Tankini – two piece swimsuit similar to a bikini but with a sleeveless top that covers most of the torso
  • Tank thong – one piece body suit with racerback and thong back
  • Tassel – decoration for the bottom hem of a garment, curtain or cord formed of plaited or gathered threads
  • Tea Gown – late 19th to mid 20th Century woman’s at-home dress, unstructured lines, light fabrics and frothy or feminine detail. Long flowing sleeves and a train
  • Teddy (body, camiknickers)- women’s underwear which combines a camisole and knickers in one piece
  • Thong (tanga) – underwear or swimwear with a thin strip of fabric between the legs connected to a waistband
  • Tights (pantyhose) – tight fitting undergarment from waist to knee
  • Toga – Ancient Roman man’s robe made of a single piece of white woollen fabric
  • Toggle – fastening similar to a button but in the form of a wooden peg that is pushed through a loop
  • Tontillo – Spanish farthingale with steel hoops
  • Top hat (topper) – tall, flat crowned broad brimmed hat popular in the 19th and early 20th century
  • Toque – Women’s close fitting hat, brimless or narrow brimmed
  • Trabea – Purple toga or with horizontal purple stripes worn by kings and consuls, Ancient Roman. In early Byzantium described a brocaded scarf
  • Track suit – sportswear consisting of jacket and trousers, first referred to in 1921. In 1964 Adidas began to market tracksuits as leisure wear but they did not make a major appearance as fashion items until the 1970s
  • Train – long section of a gown that trails on the ground behind
  • Trainer (running shoe) – athletic shoe also used as casual wear. Constructed of flexible materials with a dense rubber sole. Branded designer trainers became very fashionable in the 1990s
  • Trench-coat – double-breasted waterproof belted coat
  • Tricorne – triangular hat with brim turned up on three sides
  • Trilby – soft felt hat with dented crown and flexible brim
  • Trollopée – woman’s long flowing gown with open front and drawn up behind, c1750
  • Trotteur – woman’s walking suit, tailored suit, dress, hat and sturdy shoes, early 20th century
  • Trousers – garment for lower body covering each leg separately
  • Trousses – tight-fitting breeches, 17th century
  • Trunks (swimming trunks) – swimming trunks are a form of short trouser, mid-thigh length with a polyester liner
  • Trunk hose – thigh-length trousers with puffed bottoms, 16th century
  • Tulip dress – similar to a puffball dress
  • Tunic à la Mameluck – Tunic with short sleeves, French 1801
  • Turban – headdress formed by wrapping a scarf-like piece of fabric around the head
  • Tutu (ballet tutu) – ballet dancer’s skirt, sometimes with a fitted bodice. There are a number of styles including the familiar stiff tutu that projects out from the body to the looser, longer Romantic tutu
  • Tutulus – Conical hairstyle and also a conical woollen cap. Ancient Roman
  • Tuxedo – American name for a dinner jacket
  • Twinset – combination of tight under-jumper and cardigan, the cardigan is left unbuttoned and often worn with pearls, 1940s
  • Udones – Ancient Roman socks
  • Underpropper (supportasse) – wire frame to support cartwheel ruffs, 16th and early 17th century
  • Union suit – American name for combinations, long one-piece underwear.
  • V-neck – v-shaped neckline
  • Vallancy – large wig that shaded the face, 17th century
  • Vamp – upper part of a shoe
  • Venetians – full, baggy knee-length breeches, early 17th century
  • Verdingale – see Farthingale
  • Vest – collarless, sleeveless undergarment for the torso. American term for a waistcoat.
  • Vest top – An item of underwear for the torso or a sleeveless T-shirt. Also an American term for the tank top
  • Visagière – the open part of a hood surrounding the face
  • Visite – buttoned shawl with two slits at the front, large enough to be used as a short cloak, late 19th century
  • Visible pant line (VPL) – description of the line of underwear showing through outer garment
  • Vitta – woman’s headband, Ancient Roman
  • Vliegar – Dutch woman’s gown, open fronted, sleeved and with a straight collar, mid 17th century
  • Volant – A sleeveless light jacket fastened with a single button, late 18th century. Also a French term for a flounce or ruffle
  • Waistcoat – Developed from the vest in the 17th century, a sleeveless jacket with the front part made of fine material and cheaper fabric at the back where it would not be seen
  • Walking suit – woman’s suit with the hem line an inch or two above the ground, late 19th century early 20th century
  • Watteau gown – Main form of dress in the Regency Period (1811-1820), named after the painter Jean-Antoine Watteau. A tight bodice and a very full underskirt, the loose folds falling from the shoulders became part of the skirt. Low décolletage and decorated stomacher
  • Waxed jacket (Barbour) – waterproof jacket made of cotton treated with wax, the best known manufacturer is J. Barbour & Sons and the jacket is often simply referred to as a Barbour. Associated with the country pursuits and the Sloane subculture
  • Wedge heel – heel which merges into the sole and is in contact with the ground from toe to heel
  • Whale tail – description of the exposed back of a thong above low cut jeans, the effect is often deliberate and may also be used to reveal tattoos on the lower back
  • Whisk – small semi-circular standing collar, 17th century
  • White-tie – formal evening wear
  • White-work – white embroidery on a white ground
  • Wimple – band of cloth covering a woman’s neck, chin and head
  • Windcheater (windbreaker) – lightweight nylon zip-up jacket with hood, fitted waistband and cuffs
  • Windsor knot – large style of tie
  • Winkle picker – boot or shoes with pointed toe from the 1950s
  • Witchhoura – fur-trimmed hooded overcoat from Poland, worn in winter over a light dress
  • Wrap (wrap around) – skirt or dress with a full length opening that is adjusted to the figure by wrapping around
  • Y-fronts – men’s underwear, briefs
  • Yukata – Japanese summer garment, a simple casual form of the kimono
  • Zentai – skin-tight full body suit used in modern dance, drama or in film and television special effects to render someone invisible against a blue or green screen
  • Zona – sash worn around the waist by Ancient Greek athletes
  • Zoot suit (Zuit suit) – suit with high waisted, wide legged trousers and a long coat with wide lapels and padded shoulders. American 1930 and 1940s

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